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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 117-122

Prognostic factors to predict the progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A narrative review

1 Department of Orthopaedics, S.C.B. Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India
2 Department of Spine Services, Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India
3 Intern, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Alhad Mulkalwar
Intern, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Acharya Donde Marg, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jodp.jodp_36_22

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Scoliosis has always presented a challenge to the clinicians both at the stage of decision-making and at the stage of correcting the same. Predicting curve progression is important as it helps in selecting the patients who may benefit from an earlier intervention. Patients can be treated either by brace application or by operative intervention depending on the magnitude of curve and potential of curve progression. In this review, we have summarized the past and present parameters used to predict scoliosis progression with a brief introduction about the future trend in this respect. We identified and reviewed a total of 46 relevant papers written in English language utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus search engines. Many clinicians had come up with various radiological methods such as Risser grading, Tanner–Whitehouse staging (TW2-RUS and TW3) methods, Greulich–Pyle method, Sauvegrain method using only olecranon process radiographs and various clinical methods such as age of menarche and Tanner staging for sexual maturity. Apart from these, recently, various genetic factors such as single-nucleotide polymorphism of various genes, platelet calmodulin, peripheral blood mononuclear cell, impairment in melatonin signaling, DNA-based test called “ScoliScore” and hormones such as serum ghrelin and leptin have been investigated. Changes in brainstem vestibular function and alteration in electrical activities of paraspinal muscles are also studied to predict the curve progression. The two most important dilemmas faced by clinicians while approaching patients with scoliosis are the identification of patients requiring intervention and the right time to intervene in the selected patients. The goal of scoliosis treatment is to halt the progression. Predicting the growth spurt in an individual patient will guide the appropriate timing of intervention which can prevent complications associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis so that they can lead a better quality of life.

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